In most respects, Dipterus, which was about 35 centimetres (14 in) long, closely resembled modern lungfish. Like its ancestor Dipnorhynchus, it had tooth-like plates on its palate instead of real teeth. However, unlike its modern relatives, in which the dorsal, caudal, and anal fin are fused into one, Dipterus's fins were still separated. It mostly ate invertebrates, and had lungs, not an air bladder. These were more developed in Dipterus and are still seen in modern day lungfish.
The genus was established by Adam Sedgwick & Roderick Murchison in the year 1828.