Hoplophoneus was named by American paleontologist E.D. Cope in 1874. It was synonymized subjectively with Drepanodon by Palmer (1904) and Scott and Jepsen (1936). It was assigned to Hoplophoneinae by Flynn and Galiano (1982); to Nimravinae by Bryant (1991); and to Nimravidae by Cope (1874), Simpson (1941), Hough (1949) and Martin (1998).
- H. dakotensis Hatcher 1895
- H. kurteni Martin 1992
- H. mentalis Sinclair 1921 (syn. H. oharrai)
- H. occidentalis Leidy 1866 (syn. Dinotomius atrox)
- H. primaevus Leidy and Owen 1851 (syn. H. insolens, H. latidens, H. marshi, H. molossus, H. robustus, Machaerodus oreodontis)
- H. sicarius (syn. Eusmilus sicarius Sinclair and Jepsen 1927)